Právny obzor

6

Ročník 104

2021

 

 
T E O R E T I C K Ý  Č A S O P I S  P R E  O T Á Z K Y  Š T Á T U  A  P R Á V A

VAĽO

Trestnoprávna vina a zahladenie odsúdenia

Criminal guilt and expungement of conviction

JUDr. Michal Vaľo, CSc.

Právny obzor, Volume 103, 2020, No. 5, pp. 372 – 386.

Published online: 31.8.2021

Abstract. The author defines the term “criminal guilt” as a criminal liability for committing a criminal offense imputed by a final decision of a criminal court – conviction of an offender. Attributable of criminal guilt is a strictly institutionalized and formalized instrument in the hands of the State, which determines to whom, for what, as well as when the criminal guilt is to be imputed. Through the judicial authorities, the State may or may not impute criminal guilt. Criminal guilt is not given by the commitment of the act itself, but only by an authoritative decision of the court. The legal system as a whole in assessing a person‘s guilt for a criminal offense can only be based on a legal fact, which is the finding of guilt by a valid court decision. If no guilt is pronounced for any reason, the person must be regarded as innocent on the basis of the presumption of innocence, meaning that the person has not committed the offense de jure. Expungement of a conviction has the same effect. Expungement of a conviction is to be understood as the expungement of all the effects of a conviction judgement which are linked to that judgment by the law of the State. Treating a person as if that person has not been convicted means to treat that person as innocent. The author therefore criticizes decisions of the courts regarding this issue.

Key words: vina guilt from a crime, presumption of innocence, expunged conviction

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ISSN 2729-9228
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ISSN 0032-6984
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