Právny obzor


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Zmluvná pokuta v procese rekodifikácie súkromného práva (návrh novely Občianskeho zákonníka)

Contractual penalty in the process of recodification of private law (draft amendment to the Civil Code)

Prof. JUDr. Oľga Ovečková, DrSc., Institute of State and Law of Slovak Academy of Sciences

Právny obzor, Volume 102, 2019, No. 2, pp. 168 – 179.

Published online: 31.8.2021

Abstract. The article addresses pending and open issues of the proposed legal regulation of contractual penalty as part of the attempt to unify the obligation law in the draft amendment to the Civil Code. Proposed changes are assessed in terms of their purpose, but also in terms of their continuity and comparison with legal regulation in the new Czech Civil Code. The article also highlights some changes in the terminology, but in particular it addresses substantive changes in legal regulation of a contractual penalty. The article focuses on: legal nature of contractual penalty and definition of secured obligation; formal or informal character of contractual penalty; liability nature of contractual penalty; relation between contractual penalty and compensation for damage, moderation right of the court; differentiation of contractual penalty from default interest. Changes in the proposed regulation can be evaluated as fundamental. They manifest themselves in the following areas: a) By explicit legal regulation the draft extends the scope of legal obligations that may be secured by a contractual penalty beyond the scope of contractual obligations. b) It explicitly allows for a penalty in kind. c) The liability principle of application of a contractual penalty changes as compared to the de lege lata status. In relations among citizens it is tightened, while in relations among entrepreneurs it is loosened. On several occasions the article highlights some issues that need to be discussed or even modified in the draft amendment.

Key words: contractual penalty, written form, liberation reasons, damage, limitation of damage


ISSN 2729-9228

ISSN 0032-6984


Právny obzor is peer-reviewed journal and is indexed in SCOPUS and HeinOnline database (INDEX TO FOREIGN LEGAL PERIODICALS).


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